Category Archives: Publications

Effects of Whole-Body Exercise Training on Body Composition and Functional Capacity in Normal-Weight Patients With COPD

Frits M.E. Franssen, Roelinka Broekhuizen, Paul P. Janssen, Emiel F.M. Wouters, Annemie M.W. Schols
Chest 2004; 125:2021-2028
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle wasting is related to muscle dysfunction, exercise intolerance, and increased mortality risk in patients with COPD. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of whole-body exercise training on body composition in normal-weight patients with COPD, and to study the relationship between changes in body composition and functional capacity. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Fifty patients with COPD (FEV(1), 39% of predicted [SD, 16]) admitted to the pulmonary rehabilitation center at Hornerheide, and 36 healthy age-matched control subjects (for baseline comparison) were included. INTERVENTIONS: Patients participated in a standardized inpatient exercise training program consisting of daily submaximal cycle ergometry, treadmill walking, weight training, and gymnastics during 8 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Fat-free mass (FFM) was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. None of the patients met the criteria for nutritional supplementation (body mass index </= 21, or FFM index </= 15 kg/m(2) in women and </= 16 kg/m(2) in men). Exercise capacity was measured using incremental cycle ergometry. Isokinetic quadriceps strength was measured with a Biodex dynamometer (Biodex Medical Corporation; Shirley, NY). RESULTS: At baseline, patients were characterized by a significantly lower FFM than the control subjects. Age and FFM were independent predictors of skeletal muscle function and exercise capacity in patients. After rehabilitation, weight (72.4 +/- 9.8 to 73.0 +/- 9.4 kg, p < 0.05) significantly increased, as a result of increased FFM (52.4 +/- 7.3 to 53.4 +/- 7.7 kg, p < 0.05), while fat mass (20.0 +/- 6.1 to 19.6 +/- 5.7 kg) tended to decrease. Peak work rate (63 +/- 29 to 84 +/- 42 W, p < 0.001), maximal oxygen consumption (O(2)max) [1,028 +/- 307 to 1,229 +/- 421 mL/min, p < 0.001], and isokinetic quadriceps strength (82.5 +/- 36.4 to 90.3 +/- 34.9 Newton-meters, p < 0.05) all improved. Changes in FFM were proportionally smaller than functional improvements, and were related to changes in O(2)max (r = 0.361, p < 0.05), but not to other changes in functional capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive exercise training per se is able to induce an anabolic response in normal-weight patients with COPD classified into Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages III-IV. Improvements in exercise performance and muscle function are proportionally larger than increases in FFM.

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Exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia detected by cardiopulmonary exercise testing

Romualdo Belardinelli, Francesca Lacalaprice, Flavia Carle, Adelaide Minnucci, Giovanni Cianci, GianPiero Perna, Giuseppe D’Eusanio
European Heart Journal (2003) 24, 1304-1313
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to identify the parameter(s) of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) that can detect exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia (EIMI), and to determine its diagnostic accuracy for identifying patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 202 consecutive patients (173 men, 29 women, mean age 55.7+/-10.8 years) with documented CAD. All patients underwent an incremental exercise stress testing (ECG-St) with breath-by-breath gas exchange analysis, followed by a 2-day stress/rest gated SPECT myocardial scintigraphy (GSMS) as the gold standard for ischaemia detection. ROC analysis selected a two-variable model-O(2)pulse flattening duration, calculated from the onset of myocardial ischaemia to peak exercise, and deltaVO(2)/deltawork rate slope-to predict EIMI by CPET. GSMS identified 140 patients with reversible myocardial defects, with a Summed Difference Score (SDS) of 9.7+/-2.8, and excluded EIMI in 62 (SDS 1.3+/-1.6). ECG-St had low sensitivity (46%) and specificity (66%) to diagnose EIMI as compared with CPET (87% and 74%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of gas exchange analysis improves the diagnostic accuracy of standard ECG stress testing in identifying EIMI. A two-variable model based on O(2)pulse flattening duration and deltaVO(2)/deltawork rate slope had the highest predictive ability to identify EIMI.

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Work-rate affects cardiopulmonary exercise test results in heart failure

Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Michele Bianchia, Andrea Moraschia, Pietro Palermoa, Gaia Cattadoria, Rocco La Gioiab, Maurizio Bussottia, Karlman Wasserman
Europ J of Heart Failure 2005; 7: 498-504
AIMS: Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is used to evaluate patients with chronic heart failure (HF) usually by means of a personalized ramp exercise protocol. Our aim was to evaluate if exercise duration or ramp rate influences the results. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety HF patients were studied (peak V (O(2)): >20 ml/min/kg, n=28, 15-20 ml/min/kg, n=39 and <15 ml/min/kg, n=23). Each patient did four CPET studies. The initial study was used to separate the subjects into three groups, according to their exercise capacity. In the remaining studies, work-rate was increased at three different rates designed to have the subjects reach peak exercise in 5, 10 and 15 min from the start of the ramp increase in work-rate, respectively. The order was randomized. The work-rate applied for the total population averaged 22.7+/-8.0, 11.6+/-3.7, 7.5+/-2.9 W/min with effective loaded exercise duration of 5 min and 16 s+/-29 s, 9 min and 43 s+/-49 s and 14 min and 32 s+/-1 min and 12 s for the 5-, 10- and 15-min tests, respectively. Peak V (O(2)) averaged 16.9+/-4.3*, 18.0+/-4.4 and 18.0+/-5.4 ml/min/kg for the 5-, 10- and 15-min tests, (*=p<0.001 vs. 10 min). The shortest test had the lowest peak heart rate and ventilation and highest peak work-rate. Peak V (O(2)) and heart rate were lowest in 5-min tests regardless of HF severity. The DeltaV (O(2))/Deltawork-rate was lowest in 5-min tests and highest in 15-min tests. At all ramp rates, DeltaV (O(2))/Deltawork-rate was lower for the subjects with the lower peak V (O(2)). The V (e)/V (CO(2)) slope and V (O(2)) at anaerobic threshold were not affected by the protocol for any grade of HF. CONCLUSIONS: In chronic HF, exercise protocol has a small effect on peak V (O(2)) and DeltaV (O(2))/Deltawork but does not affect V (O(2)) at anaerobic threshold and V (e)/V (CO(2)) slope.

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