Category Archives: Publications

Abnormal heart-rate response during cardiopulmonary exercise testing identifies cardiac dysfunction in symptomatic patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease

Sundeep Chaudhry , Naresh Kumar, Hushyar Behbahani , Akshay Bagai , Binoy K. Singh , NickMenasco , Gregory D. Lewis , Laurence Sperling , Jonathan Myers

International Journal of Cardiology 228 (2017) 114–121

Background: Symptomatic non-obstructive coronary artery disease is a growing clinical dilemma for whic hcontemporary testing is proving to be of limited clinical utility. New methods are needed to identify cardiac dysfunction.
Methods and results: This is a prospective observational cohort study conducted from December 2013 to August 2015 in two outpatient cardiology clinics (symptomatic cohort) and 24 outpatient practices throughout the US (healthy cohort) with centralized methodology and monitoring to compare heart-rate responses during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Participants were 208 consecutive patients (median age, 61; range, 32–86 years) with exercise intolerance and without prior heart or lung disease in whom coronary anatomy was defined and 116 healthy subjects (median age, 45; range, 26–66 years). Compared to stress ECG, the novel change in heartrate as a function of work-rate parameter (ΔHR-WR Slope) demonstrated significantly higher sensitivity to detect under-treated atherosclerosis with similar specificity. In men, area under the ROC curve increased from 60% to 94% for non-obstructive CAD and from 64% to 80% for obstructive CAD. In women,  AUC increased from 64% to 85% for non-obstructive CAD and from 66% to 90% for obstructive CAD. ΔHR-WR Slope correctly reclassified abnormal studies in the non-obstructive CADgroup from 22% to 81%; in the obstructive CAD group from18% to 84% and in the revascularization group from 35% to 78%.
Conclusion: Abnormal heart-rate response during CPET is more effective than stress ECG for identifying undertreated atherosclerosis and may be of utility to identify cardiac dysfunction in symptomatic patients with normal routine cardiac testing.

Primary graft dysfunction: Long-term physical function outcomes among lung transplant recipients

Armstrong, Hilary F.; Lederer, David J.;
Bacchetta, Matthew; Bartels, Matthew N..

Heart & Lung: the Journal of Acute and Critical Care, November-December 2016, Vol. 45 Issue: Number 6 p544-549, 6p;

Abstract: Adults with primary graft dysfunction (PGD)
after lung transplantation are at increased risk for pulmonary and
functional impairment. No prior studies have described the long-term
(within 1.5 years of transplant) cardiopulmonary exercise testing
(CPET) results in adults with grade 3 PGD. The objective of this study
was to compare the functional outcomes of lung transplant patients with
and without grade 3 PGD via CPET and six-minute talk tests (6MWD).;

Acute effects of exercise on the inflammatory state in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Harbaum, Lars; Renk,
Emilia; Yousef, Sara; Glatzel, Antonia; Lüneburg, Nicole; Hennigs, Jan;
Oqueka, Tim; Baumann, Hans; Atanackovic, Djordje; Grünig, Ekkehard;
Böger, Rainer; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Klose, Hans.

BMC Pulmonary Medicine, December 2016, Vol. 16 Issue: Number 1 p1-11, 11p;

Abstract: Exercise training positively influences exercise tolerance and functional
capacity of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension
(IPAH). However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized
that exercise modulates the activated inflammatory state found in IPAH
patients.                   Single cardiopulmonary exercise testing was
performed in 16 IPAH patients and 10 healthy subjects. Phenotypic
characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and circulating
cytokines were assessed before, directly after and 1 h after exercise.
Before exercise testing, IPAH patients showed elevated
Th2 lymphocytes, regulatory T lymphocytes, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, whilst
Th1/Th17 lymphocytes and IL-4 were reduced. In IPAH patients but not in
healthy subject, exercise caused an immediate relative decrease of Th17
lymphocytes and a sustained reduction of IL-1-beta and IL-6. The higher
the decrease of IL-6 the higher was the peak oxygen consumption of IPAH
patients.                   Exercise seems to be safe from an immune
and inflammatory point of view in IPAH patients. Our results
demonstrate that exercise does not aggravate the inflammatory state and
seems to elicit an immune-modulating effect in IPAH patients.

Effects of high-intensity interval training on central haemodynamics and skeletal muscle oxygenation during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure

Spee, Ruud F; Niemeijer, Victor M; Wijn,
Pieter F; Doevendans, Pieter A; Kemps, Hareld M.

European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, December 2016, Vol. 23 Issue: Number 18
p1943-1952, 10p

Abstract: Background
High-intensity interval training
(HIT) improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure
(CHF). Moreover, HIT was associated with improved resting cardiac
function. However, the extent to which these improvements actually
contribute to training-induced changes in exercise capacity remains to
be elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of HIT on exercising
central haemodynamics and skeletal muscle oxygenation.Methods
Twenty-six CHF patients were randomised to a 12-week 4 × 4 minute HIT
program at 85–95% of peak VO2or usual care. Patients performed maximal
and submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing with simultaneous
assessment of cardiac output and skeletal muscle oxygenation by near
infrared spectroscopy, using the amplitude of the tissue saturation
index (TSIamp).

Results  Peak workload increased by 11% after HIT
(pbetween group = 0.01) with a non-significant increase in peak
VO2(+7%, pbetween group = 0.19). Cardiac reserve increased by 37% after
HIT (p within group = 0.03, pbetween group = 0.08); this increase was
not related to improvements in peak workload. Oxygen uptake recovery
kinetics after submaximal exercise were accelerated by 20% (pbetween
group = 0.02); this improvement was related to a decrease in TSIamp
(r= 0.71, p= 0.03), but not to changes in cardiac output

Conclusion  HIT induced improvements in maximal exercise
capacity and exercising haemodynamics at peak exercise. Improvements in
recovery after submaximal exercise were associated with attenuated
skeletal muscle deoxygenation during submaximal exercise, but not with
changes in cardiac output kinetics, suggesting that the effect of HIT
on submaximal exercise capacity is mediated by improved microvascular
oxygen delivery-to-utilisation matching.; (AN 40419387)

Systematic review: pre‐ and post‐operative prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in liver transplant candidates

Ney,  M.; Haykowsky, M. J.; Vandermeer, B.; Shah, A.; Ow, M.; Tandon, P..
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, October 2016, Vol. 44 Issue:
Number 8 p796-806, 11p;

Abstract: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing
(CPET) is the gold standard for the objective assessment of functional
status. In many conditions, CPET outperforms the traditional variables
in predicting mortality. In patients with cirrhosis listed for liver
transplantation, our primary aim was to determine the prognostic value
of CPET for pre‐and post‐transplant mortality and, in particular,
whether CPET remained predictive after adjustment for liver disease
severity. A systematic literature review was conducted in databases
Medline, Scopus, Embase and PubMed. Where possible, data were pooled
for meta‐analyses using a DerSimonian and Laird random effects model. A
total of seven studies were retrieved, including 1107 patients with a
mean MELD of 14.2 (standard deviation 1.6) and peak baseline VO2of 17.4
mL/kg/min. In all of the studies in which multivariable analysis was
performed, CPET variables were independent predictors of pre‐transplant
mortality (three studies) and post‐transplant mortality (four studies).
In the three studies where we could aggregate post‐transplant mortality
data, post‐transplant mortality was predicted by AT with a mean
difference of 2.0 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.42–3.59; Z= 2.48, P=
0.01) between survivors and nonsurvivors. The peak VO2was not
significant (0.77 95% CI: −1.36 to 2.90; Z= 0.71, P= 0.48). Patient’s
listed for liver transplant have significant functional limitations,
with a weighted mean VO2 below the threshold level required for
independent living. Although heterogeneity in study designs with
respect to timing, CPET variables, and cut‐off values precluded the
determination of CPET mortality thresholds, the studies support CPET as
an objective and independent predictor of pre‐ and post‐transplant

Potential Effects on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Status After a Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training Program in Diabetes Patients — a Randomized Controlled TrialPotential Effects on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Status After a Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training Program in Diabetes Patients — a Randomized Controlled Trial

Bassi, Daniela; Mendes, Renata; Arakelian, Vivian; Caruso, Flávia; Cabiddu, Ramona; Júnior, José;
Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey.

Sports Medicine – Open, December 2016, Vol. 2 Issue: Number 1 p1-13, 13p;

Abstract: Concurrent aerobic and resistance training (CART) programs have been widely recommended as
an important strategy to improve physiologic and functional performance
in patients with chronic diseases. However, the impact of a
personalized CART program in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)
requires investigation. Therefore, the primary aim of the current study
is to investigate the impact of CART programs on metabolic profile,
glycemic control, and exercise capacity in patients with diabetes.
We evaluated 41 subjects with T2D (15 females and 19
males, 50.8 ± 7 years); subjects were randomized into two groups;
sedentary (SG) and CART (CART-G). CART was performed over 1.10-h
sessions (30-min aerobic and 30-min resistance exercises) three
times/week for 12 weeks. Body composition, biochemical analyses,
peripheral muscular strength, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were
primary measurements.                   The glycated hemoglobin HbA1c
(65.4 ± 17.9 to 55.9 ± 12.7 mmol/mol), cholesterol (198.38.1 ± 50.3 to
186.8 ± 35.1 mg/dl), and homeostasis model assessment insulin
resistance (HOMA-IR) (6.4 ± 6.8 to 5.0 ± 1.4) decreased in the CART-G
compared to the SG. Although body weight did not significantly change
after training, skinfold measurement indicated decreased body fat in
the CART-G only. CART significantly enhanced muscle strength compared
to the SG (p< 0.05). CART was also associated with significant increase
in peak oxygen uptake and maximal workload compared to the SG
(p< 0.05).                   These data support CART as an important
strategy in the treatment of patients with T2D, producing both
physiologic and functional improvements.