Determinants of oxygen uptake and prognostic factors in cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients with Fontan surgery.

Cardiology in the young [Cardiol Young] 2021 Oct 04, pp. 1-4. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Oct 04.

Martin Talavera M;
Manso B;
Garcia de Vinuesa PG;
Cejudo Ramos P;
Rodriguez Puras MJ;
Wals Rodriguez AJ;
Garcia de Vinuesa PG,

Introduction: Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) allows quantification of functional capacity of patients with Fontan. The objective of this study was to determine the role of CPET parameters in predicting a higher maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and to analyse the role of CPET parameters in predicting an unfavourable outcome.
Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out on 57 patients with Fontan, who had undergone incremental CPET with cycloergometer between 2010 and 2020. Determinants of VO2 max and determinants of clinical deterioration were analysed.
Results: In the univariate analysis, the variables significantly related to VO2 max were: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), years of Fontan evolution, intracardiac Fontan, oxygen consumption at anaerobic threshold (VO2AT), CO2 equivalents at anaerobic threshold (VE/VCO2) and chronotropic insufficiency. The multiple linear regression model that best fitted the relationship between VO2 max and independent variables (correlation coefficient 0.73) included sex (correlation index 3.35; p = 0.02), BMI (-0.27; p = 0.02), chronotropic failure (-2.79; p = 0.01) and VO2AT (0.92; p < 0.0001). In the univariate analysis of the prognostic CPET variables related to an unfavourable clinical situation, significance was only obtained with chronotropic insufficiency (p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, chronotropic insufficiency maintains its association [p= 0.017, OR = 4.65 (1.3-16.5)].
Conclusions: In conclusion, together with the anthropometric parameters universally related to VO2 max, chronotropic insufficiency and VO2AT are the main determinants of functional capacity in patients with Fontan. Moreover, chronotropic insufficiency is closely related to unfavourable clinical evolution. Our data would support the intensive treatment of chronotropic insufficiency in order to improve the quality of life and the clinical situation of patients with Fontan.