Impact of the Remission of Type 2 Diabetes on Cardiovascular Structure and Function, Exercise Capacity and Risk Profile: A Propensity Matched Analysis.

Bilak JM; Yeo JL; Gulsin GS; Marsh AM; Sian M; Dattani A; Ayton SL; Parke KS; Bain M; Pang W; Boulos S; Pierre TGS; Davies MJ; Yates T; McCann GP; Brady EM;

Journal of cardiovascular development and disease [J Cardiovasc Dev Dis] 2023 Apr 24; Vol. 10 (5).
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Apr 24.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) confers a high risk of heart failure frequently with evidence of cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities before symptom onset. The effects of remission of T2D on cardiovascular structure and function are unknown. The impact of the remission of T2D, beyond weight loss and glycaemia, on cardiovascular structure and function and exercise capacity is described. Adults with T2D without cardiovascular disease underwent multimodality cardiovascular imaging, cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cardiometabolic profiling. T2D remission cases (Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 6.5% without glucose-lowering therapy, ≥3 months) were propensity score matched 1:4 based on age, sex, ethnicity and time of exposure to those with active T2D ( n = 100) with the nearest-neighbour method and 1:1 with non-T2D controls ( n = 25). T2D remission was associated with a lower leptin-adiponectin ratio, hepatic steatosis and triglycerides, a trend towards greater exercise capacity and significantly lower minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope) vs. active T2D (27.74 ± 3.95 vs. 30.52 ± 5.46, p < 0.0025). Evidence of concentric remodeling remained in T2D remission vs. controls (left ventricular mass/volume ratio 0.88 ± 0.10 vs. 0.80 ± 0.10, p < 0.025). T2D remission is associated with an improved metabolic risk profile and ventilatory response to exercise without concomitant improvements in cardiovascular structure or function. There is a requirement for continued attention to risk factor control for this important patient population.