Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction vs. Reduced Ejection Fraction - Mechanisms of Ventilatory Inefficiency During Exercise in Heart Failure.

Tsujinaga S; Iwano H; Chiba Y;Ishizaka S; Sarashina M; Murayama M; Nakabachi M; Nishino H; Yokoyama S;
Okada K; Kaga S; Anzai T;

Circulation reports [Circ Rep] 2020 Apr 07; Vol. 2 (5), pp. 271-279. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Apr 07.

Background: Ventilatory inefficiency during exercise assessed using the lowest minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (V̇E/V̇CO 2 ) ratio was recently proven to be a strong prognostic marker of heart failure (HF) regardless of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Its physiological background, however, has not been elucidated.
Methods and Results: Fifty-seven HF patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and exercise-stress echocardiography. The lowest V̇E/V̇CO 2 ratio was assessed on respiratory gas analysis. Echocardiography was obtained at rest and at peak exercise. LVEF was measured using the method of disks. Cardiac output (CO) and the ratio of transmitral early filling velocity (E) to early diastolic tissue velocity (e’) were calculated using the Doppler method. HF patients were divided into preserved EF (HFpEF) and reduced EF (HFrEF) using the LVEF cut-off 40% at rest. Twenty-four patients were classified as HFpEF and 33 as HFrEF. In HFpEF, age (r=0.58), CO (r=-0.44), e’ (r=-0.48) and E/e’ (r=0.45) during exercise correlated with the lowest V̇E/V̇CO 2 ratio (P<0.05 for all). In contrast, in HFrEF, age (r=0.47) and CO (r=-0.54) during exercise, but not e’ and E/e’, correlated with the lowest V̇E/V̇CO 2 ratio. Conclusions: Loss of CO augmentation was associated with ventilatory inefficiency in HF regardless of LVEF, although lung congestion determined ventilatory efficiency only in HFpEF.