Cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in cardiorespiratory diseases: A systematic review.

Galdino GAM; Rehder-Santos P; Linares SN; Beltrame T; Catai AM;

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care [Heart Lung] 2023 Jan 18; Vol. 59, pp. 23-32.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Jan 18.

Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard for analyzing cardiorespiratory fitness and integrating physiological responses. However, the presence of chronic diseases may compromise cerebral hemodynamic responses during CPET. In addition, the acute response of cerebral oxygenation during incremental CPET may identify abnormal behavior and ensure greater safety for patients with cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic diseases.
Objective: To summarize the cerebral oxygenation acute response during CPET of patients with cardiovascular, metabolic, or respiratory diseases.
Methods: From inception to 23rd September 2022, five databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Embase and CINAHAL) were searched for cross-sectional studies performing incremental CPET and measuring the cerebral oxygenation acute response in cardiovascular, metabolic, or respiratory diseases compared with healthy individuals. The Downs and Black tool assessed the risk of bias of the studies.
Results: We included seven studies with 428 participants (305 men and 123 women), aged 43 to 70 years. Of these, 101 had heart failure NYHA II and III; 77 idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy; 33 valvular disease; 25 coronary heart disease; 22 pulmonary arterial hypertension; 15 had severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 166 were apparently healthy. There was no eligible article with metabolic disease. There was a lower magnitude increase in cerebral oxygenation of cardiovascular patients compared with the healthy individuals during the CPET. Furthermore, pulmonary arterial hypertension patients presented increased cerebral oxygen extraction, differently to those with severe OSA.
Conclusion: Considering the heterogeneity of the included studies, patients with cardiovascular disease may suffer from reduced cerebral oxygen supply, and individuals with OSA presented lower brain oxygen extraction during the CPET. Future studies should aim for strategies to improve cerebral oxygenation to ensure greater safety at CPET of cardiovascular and OSA patients. An acute response pattern for metabolic and other respiratory diseases was not established.