Dyspnea in Chronic Low Ventricular Preload States.

Tooba R; Mayuga KA; Wilson R; Tonelli AR;

Annals of the American Thoracic Society [Ann Am Thorac Soc] 2021 Apr; Vol. 18 (4), pp. 573-581.

Dyspnea in low-preload states is an underrecognized but growing diagnosis in patients with unexplained dyspnea. Patients can often experience debilitating symptoms at rest and with exertion, as low measured preload often leads to decreased cardiac output and ultimately dyspnea. In the present article, we performed a review of the literature and a multidisciplinary evaluation to understand the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of dyspnea in low-preload states. We explored selected etiologies and suggested an algorithm to approach unexplained dyspnea. The mainstay of diagnosis remains as invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing. We concluded with a variety of nonpharmacological and pharmacological therapies, highlighting that a multifactorial approach may lead to the best results.