Overkamp M; Houben LHP; van der Meer S; Bos R; Kokshoorn APJ; Larsen MS; van Loon LJC; Beelen M; Beijer S;
Scandinavian journal of urology [Scand J Urol] 2023 Jan 26, pp. 1-7.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Jan 26.
Objectives: To assess the adverse impact of the first 5 months of androgen deprivation therapy on body composition, physical performance, cardiometabolic health and health-related quality-of-life in prostate cancer patients.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-four prostate cancer patients (70 ± 7 years) were assessed shortly after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy and again 5 months thereafter. Measurements consisted of whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (body composition), computed tomography scanning of the upper leg (muscle mass), one-repetition maximum leg press (muscle strength), cardiopulmonary exercise testing (aerobic capacity), blood draws (metabolic parameters), accelerometry (habitual physical activity) and questionnaires (health-related quality-of-life). Data were analyzed with Student’s paired t -tests.
Results: Over time, whole-body fat mass (from 26.2 ± 7.7 to 28.4 ± 8.3 kg, p < 0.001) and fasting insulin (from 9.5 ± 5.8 to 11.3 ± 6.9 mU/L, p < 0.001) increased. Declines were observed for quadriceps cross-sectional area (from 66.3 ± 9.1 to 65.0 ± 8.5 cm 2 , p < 0.01), one-repetition maximum leg press (from 107 ± 27 to 100 ± 27 kg, p < 0.01), peak oxygen uptake (from 23.2 ± 3.7 to 20.3 ± 3.4 mL/min/kg body weight, p < 0.001), step count (from 7,048 ± 2,277 to 5,842 ± 1,749 steps/day, p < 0.01) and health-related quality-of-life (from 84.6 ± 13.5 to 77.0 ± 14.6, p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Androgen deprivation therapy induces adverse changes in body composition, muscle strength, cardiometabolic health and health-related quality-of-life already within 5 months after the start of treatment, possibly largely contributed by diminished habitual physical activity. Prostate cancer patients should, therefore, be stimulated to increase their habitual physical activity immediately after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, to limit adverse side-effects and to improve health-related quality-of-life.