Physiology of exercise and heart failure treatments: cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a tool for choosing the optimal therapeutic strategy

J. Campodonico, M. Contini, M. Alimento, M. Mapelli, E. Salvioni, I. Mattavelli, et al

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2023 Vol. 30 Issue Suppl 2 Pages ii54-ii62

In the last decades, the pharmacological treatment of heart failure (HF) become more complex due to the availability of new highly effective drugs. Although the cardiovascular effects of HF therapies have been extensively described, less known are their effects on cardiopulmonary function considered as a whole, both at rest and in response to exercise. This is a ‘holistic’ approach to disease treatment that can be accurately evaluated by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. The aim of this paper is to assess the main differences in the effects of different drugs [angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers, Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors, renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, iron supplementation] on cardiopulmonary function in patients with HF, both at rest and during exercise, and to understand how these differences can be taken into account when choosing the most appropriate treatment protocol for each individual patient leading to a precision medicine approach.