Pulmonary gas exchange and ventilatory efficiency during exercise in health and diseases.

Panza L; Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Piamonti D; Palange P;

Expert review of respiratory medicine [Expert Rev Respir Med] 2024 Jun 27, pp. 1-13.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2024 Jun 27.

Introduction: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is nowadays used to study the exercise response in healthy subjects and in disease. Ventilatory efficiency is one of the main determinants in exercise tolerance, and its main variables are a useful tool to guide pathophysiologists toward specific diagnostic pathways, providing prognostic information and improving disease management, treatment, and outcomes.
Areas Covered: This review will be based on today’s available scientific evidence, describing the main physiological determinants of ventilatory efficiency at rest and during exercise, and focusing also on how CPET variables are modified in specific diseases, leading to the possibility of early diagnosis and management.
Expert Opinion: Growing knowledge on CPET interpretation and a wider use of this clinical tool is expected in order to offer more precise diagnostic and prognostic information to patients and clinicians, helping in the management of therapeutic decisions. Future research could be able to identify new and more simple markers of ventilatory efficiency, and to individuate new interventions for the improvement of symptoms, such as exertional dyspnea.