Journal of cardiovascular development and disease [J Cardiovasc Dev Dis] 2023 Apr 19; Vol. 10 (4).
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Apr 19.
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the clinical standard for children with congenital heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF) being assessed for transplantation candidacy, and subjects with unexplained dyspnea on exertion. Heart, lung, skeletal muscle, peripheral vasculature, and cellular metabolism impairment frequently lead to circulatory, ventilatory, and gas exchange abnormalities during exercise. An integrated analysis of the multi-system response to exercise can be beneficial for differential diagnosis of exercise intolerance. The CPET combines standard graded cardiovascular stress testing with simultaneous ventilatory respired gas analysis. This review addresses the interpretation and clinical significance of CPET results with specific reference to cardiovascular diseases. The diagnostic values of commonly obtained CPET variables are discussed using an easy-to-use algorithm for physicians and trained nonphysician personnel in clinical practice.