Evaluation of Hydration Status by Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease Undergoing Exercise Stress Test.

Juan Antonio PJ; Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Laboratory;  Centro Médico Nacional ISSSTE.
Dulce María NO; Juan Antonio SC; Jorge Antonio LV; José Rodolfo AM; Hugo Alberto RA; Eduardo Alfonso LV; Julieta Danira MP; Enrique GÁ; Brenda SJ; Paul MT;

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE [J Vis Exp] 2023 Sep 22 (199).
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Sep 22.

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) represents a group of clinical syndromes characterized by myocardial ischemia, leading to an impairment in the myocardial blood supply and compromised perfusion. Several clinical variables assessed through a stress test, such as oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate oxygen pulse (HR/O2), have been attributed as cardiopulmonary prognostic factors in patients with IHD. However, other factors like hydration status (HS), potentially affecting the cardiopulmonary response, have been barely addressed. Unbalanced HS has a short-term effect on plasma volume and the sympathetic nervous system, which impacts blood volume, and lowers VO2 and HR/O2. Recently, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), a method based on the opposition of body tissues (including fluid volume) to a low electrical current, has been widely used to assess HS by obtaining two components: resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) and using prediction formulas. However, several limitations as chronic illness or abnormal fluid status, may affect the results. In this sense, alternative BIA methods, such as bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), have become relevant. R and Xc (adjusted by height) result in a vector plotted on the R/Xc graph, which allows interpreting the HS as normal or abnormal according to the distance of the mean vector. This study aims to describe how to determine HS by BIVA using a single-frequency device and compare the results with the cardiopulmonary response in patients with IHD.