Gama F; Rocha B; Aguiar C; Strong C; Freitas P; Brízido C; Tralhão A; Durazzo A; Mendes M;
Heart, lung & circulation [Heart Lung Circ] 2023 Jun 15.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Jun 15.
Background: Several heart failure (HF) prognostic risk scores are available to guide the ideal time for listing candidates for a heart transplant (HTx). The detection of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is associated with advanced HF and a worse prognosis, and yet it is not accounted for in these risk scores. Therefore, this study aimed to assess whether EOV further adds prognostic value to HF scores.
Methods: A single-centre retrospective cohort study was undertaken of consecutive HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who underwent CPET from 1996 to 2018. The Heart Failure Survival Score (HFSS), Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM), Meta-analysis Global Group In Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC), and Metabolic Exercise Cardiac Kidney Index (MECKI) were calculated. The added value of EOV on top of those scores was assessed using a Cox proportional hazard model. The added discriminative power was also assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve comparison.
Results: A total of 390 HF patients with a median age of 58 (IQR 50-65) years were investigated, of whom 78% were male and 54% had ischaemic heart disease. The median peak oxygen consumption was 15.7 mL/kg/min (IQR 12.8-20.1). Exercise oscillatory ventilation was detected in 153 (39.2%) patients. Over a median follow-up of 2 years, 61 patients died (49 due to a cardiovascular reason) and 54 had a HTx. Exercise oscillatory ventilation independently predicted the composite outcome of all-cause death and HTx. Furthermore, the presence of this ventilatory pattern significantly improved the prognostic performance of both HFSS and MAGGIC scores.
Conclusion: Exercise oscillatory ventilation was often found in a cohort of HF patients with reduced LVEF who underwent CPET. It was found that EOV added further prognostic value to contemporary HF scores, suggesting that this easily obtained parameter should be included in future modified HF scores.