Physical Activity, Exercise Capacity and Sedentary Behavior in People with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: A Scoping Review.

O’Shea O; Casey S;Giblin C; Stephenson A; Carroll TP; McElvaney NG; McDonough SM;

International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis] 2023 Jun 16; Vol. 18, pp. 1231-1250.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Jun 16 (Print Publication: 2023).

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a hereditary disorder and a genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Physical activity (PA) is important for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Little is known about PA in people with AATD. Therefore, we aimed to map the research undertaken to improve and/or measure PA, sedentary behaviour (SB) or exercise in people with AATD. Searches were conducted in CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE and clinical trial databases for studies published in 2021. Databases were searched for keywords (physical activity, AATD, exercise, sedentary behavior) as well as synonyms of these terms, which were connected using Boolean operators. The search yielded 360 records; 37 records were included for review. All included studies (n = 37) assessed exercise capacity; 22 studies reported the use of the six-minute walk test, the incremental shuttle walk test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were reported in three studies each. Other objective measures of exercise capacity included a submaximal treadmill test, the Naughton protocol treadmill test, cycle ergometer maximal test, endurance shuttle walk test, constant cycle work rate test, a peak work rate test and the number of flights of stairs a participant was able to walk without stopping. A number of participant self-reported measures of exercise capacity were noted. Only one study aimed to analyze the effects of an intensive fitness intervention on daily PA. One further study reported on an exercise intervention and objectively measured PA at baseline. No studies measured SB. The assessment of PA and use of PA as an intervention in AATD is limited, and research into SB absent. Future research should measure PA and SB levels in people with AATD and explore interventions to enhance PA in this susceptible population.
Competing Interests: Professor Noel G McElvaney reports grants from Grifols, Csl Behring; advisory board for vertex and inhibrx, outside the submitted work. The authors report no other conflicts of interest in this work.