Ricci F; Bufano G; Galusko V; Sekar B; Benedetto U; Awad WI; di Mauro M; Gallina S; Ionescu A; Badano L;
European heart journal. Quality of care & clinical outcomes [Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes] 2021 Dec 08. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Dec 08.
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a highly prevalent condition and an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes. Multiple clinical guidelines exist for the diagnosis and management of TR, but the recommendations may sometimes vary. We systematically reviewed high-quality guidelines with a specific focus on areas of agreement, disagreement and gaps in evidence. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (01/01/2011 – 30/08/2021), the Guidelines International Network International, Guideline Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse, National Library for Health Guidelines Finder, Canadian Medical Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Infobase, Google Scholar and websites of relevant organizations for contemporary guidelines that were rigorously developed (as assessed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool). Three guidelines were finally retained. There was consensus on a TR grading system, recognition of isolated functional TR associated with atrial fibrillation, and indications for valve surgery in symptomatic vs asymptomatic patients, primary vs secondary, and isolated TR forms. Discrepancies exist on the role of biomarkers, complementary multi-modality imaging, exercise echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing for risk stratification and clinical decision-making of progressive TR and asymptomatic severe TR, management of atrial functional TR and choice of transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI). Risk-based thresholds for quantitative TR grading, robust risk score models for TR surgery, surveillance intervals, population-based screening programmes, TTVI indications and consensus on endpoint definitions are lacking.