Noninvasive Scale Measurement of Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output Compared With the Direct Fick Method: A Feasibility Study.

Yazdi D; Sridaran S; Smith S; Centen C; Patel S; Wilson E;Gillon L; Kapur S; Tracy JA; Lewine K; Systrom DM Jr; MacRae CA;

Journal of the American Heart Association [J Am Heart Assoc] 2021 Dec 07, pp. e021893.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Dec 07.

Background Objective markers of cardiac function are limited in the outpatient setting and may be beneficial for monitoring patients with chronic cardiac conditions. We assess the accuracy of a scale, with the ability to capture ballistocardiography, electrocardiography, and impedance plethysmography signals from a patient’s feet while standing on the scale, in measuring stroke volume and cardiac output compared with the gold-standard direct Fick method.
Methods and Results Thirty-two patients with unexplained dyspnea undergoing level 3 invasive cardiopulmonary exercise test at a tertiary medical center were included in the final analysis. We obtained scale and direct Fick measurements of stroke volume and cardiac output before and immediately after invasive cardiopulmonary exercise test. Stroke volume and cardiac output from a cardiac scale and the direct Fick method correlated with r =0.81 and r =0.85, respectively ( P <0.001 each). The mean absolute error of the scale estimated stroke volume was -1.58 mL, with a 95% limits of agreement of -21.97 to 18.81 mL. The mean error for the scale estimated cardiac output was -0.31 L/min, with a 95% limits of agreement of -2.62 to 2.00 L/min. The changes in stroke volume and cardiac output before and after exercise were 78.9% and 96.7% concordant, respectively, between the 2 measuring methods.
Conclusions In a proof-of-concept study, this novel scale with cardiac monitoring abilities may allow for noninvasive, longitudinal measures of cardiac function. Using the widely accepted form factor of a bathroom scale, this method of monitoring can be easily integrated into a patient’s lifestyle.