Author Archives: Paul Older

Prediction of organ‐specific complications following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using cardiopulmonary exercise testing

Barakat, H. M.; Shahin, Y.; McCollum, P. T.; Chetter, I. C.

Anaesthesia, June 2015, Vol. 70 Issue: Number 6 p679-685, 7p

Abstract: This study aimed
at assessing whether measures of aerobic fitness can predict
postoperative cardiac and pulmonary complications, 30‐day mortality and
length of hospital stay following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm
repair. We prospectively collected cardiopulmonary exercise testing
data over two years for 130 patients. Upon multivariate analysis, a
decreased anaerobic threshold (OR (95% CI) 0.55 (0.37–0.84); p = 0.005)
and open repair (OR(95% CI) 6.99 (1.56–31.48); p = 0.011) were
associated with cardiac complications. Similarly, an increased
ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (OR(95% CI) 1.18 (1.05–1.33);
p = 0.005) and open repair (OR (95% CI) 14.29 (3.24–62.90); p < 0.001)
were associated with pulmonary complications. Patients who had an
endovascular repair had shorter hospital and critical care lengths of
stay (p < 0.001). Measures of fitness were not associated with 30‐day
mortality or length of hospital stay. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing
variables, therefore, seem to predict different postoperative
complications following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, which adds
value to their routine use in risk stratification and optimisation of
peri‐operative care.;

MR augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing-a novel approach to assessing cardiovascular function

Barber, Nathaniel J; Ako, Emmanuel
O; Kowalik, Grzegorz T; Steeden, Jennifer A; Pandya, Bejal; Muthurangu,

Physiological Measurement, May 2015, Vol. 36 Issue: Number 5
pN85-N94, 10p

Abstract: The purposes of this study were: (1) to
evaluate feasibility and acceptability of MRI augmented cardiopulmonary
exercise testing (MR-CPET) in healthy adults and (2) to test whether
peak values obtained at conventional and MR-CPET correlate and to
demonstrate variation in peak oxygen consumption (VO2) relates to both
peak cardiac output (CO) and peak oxygen extraction (DcO2).

Seventeen  healthy adults underwent CPET and MR-CPET using an MR compatible
ergometer and CPET system customised for MR use. Continuous aortic flow
measurement used a validated UNFOLD-SENSE spiral phase contrast
magnetic resonance (PCMR) sequence.Fifteen of 17 volunteers completed
exercise; exclusions were due to claustrophobia and inability to
effectively master exercise technique. Measures of acceptability were
lower but still satisfactory for MR-CPET.There were strong correlations
between conventional and MR-CPET for peak VO2 (r = 0.94, p < 0.001);
VCO2 (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and VE (r = 0.88, p < 0.001).Multiple linear
regression analysis demonstrated peak CO and DcO2 were independent
predictors of peak VO2 measured during MR-CPET (b = 0.73 and 0.38 p <
0.0001) and conventional CPET (b = 0.78, 0.28 p < 0.0001).MR-CPET is
feasible, acceptable and demonstrates physiology not apparent with
conventional CPET.
MR-CPET allows differentiation of the contributions
of CO and DcO2 to variation in peak VO2. We believe that this will be
useful in understanding the origin of reduced exercise capacity in
cardiac disease.

Outcomes of anatomical versus functional testing for coronary artery disease.

Douglas PS, Hoffmann U, Patel MR, Mark DB, Al-Khalidi HR, Cavanaugh B, et al.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(14):1291-300

BACKGROUND: Many patients have symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are often evaluated with the use of diagnostic testing, although there are limited data from randomized trials to guide care.
METHODS: We randomly assigned 10,003 symptomatic patients to a strategy of initial anatomical testing with the use of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or to functional testing (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress testing, or stress echocardiography). The composite primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or major procedural complication. Secondary end points included invasive cardiac catheterization that did not show obstructive CAD and radiation exposure.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 60.8+/-8.3 years, 52.7% were women, and 87.7% had chest pain or dyspnea on exertion. The mean pretest likelihood of obstructive CAD was 53.3+/-21.4%. Over a median follow-up period of 25 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 164 of 4996 patients in the CTA group (3.3%) and in 151 of 5007 (3.0%) in the functional-testing group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.29; P=0.75). CTA was associated with fewer catheterizations showing no obstructive CAD than was functional testing (3.4% vs. 4.3%, P=0.02), although more patients in the CTA group underwent catheterization within 90 days after randomization (12.2% vs. 8.1%). The median cumulative radiation exposure per patient was lower in the CTA group than in the functional-testing group (10.0 mSv vs. 11.3 mSv), but 32.6% of the patients in the functional-testing group had no exposure, so the overall exposure was higher in the CTA group (mean, 12.0 mSv vs. 10.1 mSv; P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: In symptomatic patients with suspected CAD who required noninvasive testing, a strategy of initial CTA, as compared with functional testing, did not improve clinical outcomes over a median follow-up of 2 years. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; PROMISE number, NCT01174550.).

Cardiorespiratory responses and prediction of peak oxygen uptake during the shuttle walking test in healthy sedentary adult men

Neves CD; Lacerda AC; Lage VK; Lima LP; Fonseca SF; de
Avelar NC; Teixeira MM; Mendonça VA,

Plos One [PLoS One], ISSN:
1932-6203, 2015 Feb 06; Vol. 10 (2), pp. e0117563; Publisher: Public
Library of Science; PMID: 25659094;

Background: The application of the
Shuttle Walking Test (SWT) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the
intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied.
This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory
responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT)
and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen
uptake (VO2 peak) in healthy sedentary adult men.

Methods: In the first
stage of this study, 12 participants underwent the SWT and the CEPT on
a treadmill. In the second stage, 53 participants underwent the SWT
twice. In both phases, the VO2 peak, respiratory exchange ratio (R),
and heart rate (HR) were evaluated.

Results: Similar results in VO2 peak
(P>0.05), R peak (P>0.05) and predicted maximum HR (P>0.05) were
obtained between the SWT and CEPT. Both tests showed strong and
significant correlations of VO2 peak (r = 0.704, P = 0.01) and R peak
(r = 0.737, P<0.01), as well as the agreement of these measurements by
Bland-Altman analysis. Body mass index and gait speed were the
variables that explained 40.6% (R2 = 0.406, P = 0.001) of the variance
in VO2 peak. The results obtained by the equation were compared with
the values obtained by the gas analyzer and no significant difference
between them (P>0.05) was found.

Conclusions: The SWT produced maximal
cardiorespiratory responses comparable to the CEPT, and the developed
equation showed viability for the prediction of VO2 peak in healthy
sedentary men.

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and survival after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

Grant SW, Hickey GL, Wisely NA, Carlson ED, Hartley RA, Pichel AC, et al.

Br J Anaesth. 2015;114(3):430-6.

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is increasingly used in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing major surgery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CPET can identify patients at risk of reduced survival after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from consecutive patients who underwent CPET before elective open or endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) at two tertiary vascular centres between January 2007 and October 2012 were analysed. A symptom-limited maximal CPET was performed on each patient. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modelling was used to identify risk factors associated with reduced survival. RESULTS: The study included 506 patients with a mean age of 73.4 (range 44-90). The majority (82.6%) were men and most (64.6%) underwent EVAR. The in-hospital mortality was 2.6%. The median follow-up was 26 months. The 3-year survival for patients with zero or one sub-threshold CPET value ([Formula: see text] at AT<10.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1), peak [Formula: see text]<15 ml kg(-1) min(-1) or [Formula: see text] at AT>42) was 86.4% compared with 59.9% for patients with three sub-threshold CPET values. Risk factors independently associated with survival were female sex [hazard ratio (HR)=0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.85, P=0.015], diabetes (HR=1.95, 95% CI 1.04-3.69, P=0.039), preoperative statins (HR=0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.90, P=0.016), haemoglobin g dl(-1) (HR=0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.95, P=0.006), peak [Formula: see text]<15 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (HR=1.63, 95% CI 1.01-2.63, P=0.046), and [Formula: see text] at AT>42 (HR=1.68, 95% CI 1.00-2.80, P=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: CPET variables are independent predictors of reduced survival after elective AAA repair and can identify a cohort of patients with reduced survival at 3 years post-procedure. CPET is a potentially useful adjunct for clinical decision-making in patients with AAA.

Effect of prehabilitation on objectively measured physical fitness after neoadjuvant treatment in preoperative rectal cancer patients

a blinded interventional pilot study.

West MA; Loughney L;  Lythgoe D; Barben CP; Sripadam R; Kemp GJ; Grocott MP; Jack S,

British Journal Of Anaesthesia [Br J Anaesth], ISSN: 1471-6771, 2015 Feb; Vol.
114 (2), pp. 244-51;

Publisher: Oxford University Press; PMID: 25274049;

Background: Patients requiring surgery for locally advanced
rectal cancer often additionally undergo neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy
(NACRT), of which the effects on physical fitness are unknown. The aim
of this feasibility and pilot study was to investigate the effects of
NACRT and a 6 week structured responsive exercise training programme
(SRETP) on oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] at lactate threshold
([Formula: see text]) in such patients.Methods: We prospectively
studied 39 consecutive subjects (27 males) with T3-4/N+ resection
margin threatened rectal cancer who completed standardized NACRT.
Subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline
(pre-NACRT), at week 0 (post-NACRT), and week 6 (post-SRETP).
Twenty-two subjects undertook a 6 week SRETP on a training bike (three
sessions per week) between week 0 and week 6 (exercise group). These
were compared with 17 contemporaneous non-randomized subjects (control
group). Changes in [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text] over time
and between the groups were compared using a compound symmetry
covariance linear mixed model.Results: Of 39 recruited subjects, 22 out
of 22 (exercise) and 13 out of 17 (control) completed the study. There
were differences between the exercise and control groups at baseline
[age, ASA score physical status, World Health Organisation performance
status, and Colorectal Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the
Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (CR-POSSUM) predicted
mortality]. In all subjects, [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]
significantly reduced between baseline and week 0 [-1.9 ml kg(-1)
min(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.3, -2.6; P<0.0001]. In the
exercise group, [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]
significantly improved between week 0 and week 6 (+2.1 ml kg(-1)
min(-1); 95% CI +1.3, +2.9; P<0.0001), whereas the control group values
were unchanged (-0.7 ml kg(-1) min(-1); 95% CI -1.66, +0.37;

Conclusions: NACRT before rectal cancer surgery reduces
physical fitness. A structured exercise intervention is feasible
post-NACRT and returns fitness to baseline levels within 6
weeks.Clinical Trial Registration Nct: 01325909.

Supervised exercise training reduces oxidative stress and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 2 diabetes

a randomized controlled trial.

Vinetti, Giovanni; Mozzini, Chiara; Desenzani,
Paolo; Boni, Enrico; Bulla, Laura; Lorenzetti, Isabella; Romano,
Claudia; Pasini, Andrea; Cominacini, Luciano; Assanelli, Deodato.

Scientific Reports, March 2015, Vol. 5 Issue: Number 1 p9238-9238, 1p;

Abstract: To evaluate the effects of supervised exercise training (SET)
on cardiometabolic risk, cardiorespiratory fitness and oxidative stress
status in 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), twenty male subjects with T2DM
were randomly assigned to an intervention group, which performed SET in
a hospital-based setting, and to a control group. SET consisted of a
12-month supervised aerobic, resistance and flexibility training. A
reference group of ten healthy male subjects was also recruited for
baseline evaluation only. Participants underwent medical examination,
biochemical analyses and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Oxidative
stress markers
(1-palmitoyl-2-[5-oxovaleroyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [POVPC];
1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [PGPC]) were
measured in plasma and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All
investigations were carried out at baseline and after 12 months. SET
yielded a significant modification (p < 0.05) in the following
parameters: V’O2max(+14.4%), gas exchange threshold (+23.4%), waist
circumference (−1.4%), total cholesterol (−14.6%), LDL cholesterol
(−20.2%), fasting insulinemia (−48.5%), HOMA-IR (−52.5%), plasma POVPC
(−27.9%) and PGPC (−31.6%). After 12 months, the control group
presented a V’O2max and a gas exchange threshold significantly lower
than the intervention group. Plasma POVC and PGPC were significantly
different from healthy subjects before the intervention, but not after.

Conclusion, SET was effective in improving cardiorespiratory
fitness, cardiometabolic risk and oxidative stress status in T2DM.;