Santana S; Gidding SS; Xie S; Jiang T; Kharouf R; Robinson BW;
Pediatric Cardiology [Pediatr Cardiol] 2019 Aug 07. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Aug 07.
Previous pediatric exercise test criteria for aortic stenosis severity were based on cardiac catheterization assessment, whereas current criteria are based on echocardiographic valve gradients. We sought to correlate exercise test criteria with echocardiographic assessment of severity. We report 65 studies, 51 patients (mean age of 13 ± 4 years; 75% males), with aortic stenosis (AS) who had a maximal exercise test between 2005 and 2016. We defined three groups based on resting mean Doppler gradient across their aortic valve: severe AS (n = 10; gradient of ≥ 40 mmHg), moderate AS (n = 20; gradient 25-39 mmHg), and mild AS (n = 35; gradient ≤ 24 mmHg). We studied symptoms (chest pain) during exercise, resting electrocardiogram changes (left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH]), complex arrhythmias during exercise, change in exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP; delta SBP = peak SBP-resting SBP), exercise duration, work, echocardiogram parameters (LVH), and ST-T wave changes with exercise. Additionally, we compared work and delta SBP during exercise with 117 control males and females without heart disease. Severe AS patients have statistically significant differences when compared with mild AS in ST-T wave depression during exercise, LVH on resting electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram. There was a significant difference in delta SBP between severe AS and normal controls (delta SBP 21.6 vs. 46.2 mmHg), and between moderate AS and normal controls (delta SBP 32 vs. 46.2 mmHg). There were no significant complications during maximal exercise testing. Children with echocardiographic severe and moderate AS have exercise testing abnormalities. Exercise test criteria for severity of AS were validated for echocardiographic criteria for AS severity.