Clinical and Prognostic Implications of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Stress Echocardiography in Asymptomatic Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation.

Althunayyan A; Alborikan S; Badiani S; Wong K; Uppal R; CPatel N; Petersen SE; Lloyd G; Bhattacharyya S;

The American journal of cardiology [Am J Cardiol] 2023 Jun 20; Vol. 201, pp. 8-15.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Jun 20.

The current guidelines recommend intervention in severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) in symptomatic patients or asymptomatic patients with left ventricular dilatation or dysfunction. The insidious onset of symptoms may mean that patients do not report their symptoms. The role of systematic exercise testing for symptoms in MR is not clearly defined. A total of 97 patients with moderate to severe asymptomatic MR underwent exercise echocardiography combined with cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The predictors of exercise-induced dyspnea, symptom-free survival, and mitral valve intervention were identified. A total of 18 patients (19%) developed limiting dyspnea on exercise. Spontaneous symptom-free survival at 24 months was significantly higher in those without exercise-induced symptoms than those with exercise-induced symptoms, p <0.0001. The only independent predictors of spontaneous symptoms at 2 years were effective regurgitant orifice area (odds ratio 27.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43 to 528.40, p = 0.03) and exercise-induced symptoms (odds ratio 11.56, 95% CI 1.71 to 78.09, p = 0.01). The only independent predictor of surgery was indexed left ventricular systolic volumes (odds ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.30, p = 0.006). Where only the patients who underwent surgery due to symptoms were included, the only independent predictor was exercise-induced symptoms (odds ratio 13.94, 95% CI 1.39 to 140.27, p = 0.025). In conclusion, in patients with primary asymptomatic degenerative MR, 1/5 develop revealed symptoms during exercise. This predicts a subsequent development of spontaneous symptoms and mitral valve intervention due to symptoms.
Competing Interests: Declaration of Competing Interest Dr. Petersen reports a relation with Circle Cardiovascular Imaging Inc., Calgary, Alberta, Canada (SEP) that includes consulting or advisory. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.