Sugita Y; Ito K; Yoshioka Y; Sakai S;
Cardiovascular diabetology [Cardiovasc Diabetol] 2023 Apr 28; Vol. 22 (1), pp. 97.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Apr 28.
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a frequently observed complication in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although a characteristic finding in such patients is a decrease in objective exercise capacity represented by peak oxygen uptake (peakVO 2 ), exercise capacity and its predictors in HFpEF with T2DM remain not clearly understood. This case-control study aimed to investigate the association between exercise capacity and hemodynamics indicators and T2DM comorbidity in patients with HFpEF aged 65-80 years.
Methods: Ninety-nine stable outpatients with HFpEF and 50 age-and-sex-matched controls were enrolled. Patients with HFpEF were classified as HFpEF with T2DM (n = 51, median age, 76 years) or without T2DM (n = 48, median age, 76 years). The peakVO 2 and ventilatory equivalent versus carbon dioxide output slope (VE vs VCO 2 slope) were measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The peak heart rate (HR) and peak stroke volume index (SI) were measured using impedance cardiography, and the estimated arteriovenous oxygen difference (peak a-vO 2 diff) was calculated with Fick’s equation. The obtained data were compared among the three groups using analysis of covariance adjusted for the β-blocker medication, presence or absence of sarcopenia, and hemoglobin levels in order to determine the T2DM effects on exercise capacity and hemodynamics in patients with HFpEF.
Results: In HFpEF with T2DM compared with HFpEF without T2DM and the controls, the prevalence of sarcopenia, chronotropic incompetence, and anemia were significantly higher (p < 0.001). The peakVO 2 (Controls 23.5 vs. without T2DM 15.1 vs. with T2DM 11.6 mL/min/kg), peak HR (Controls 164 vs. without T2DM 132 vs. with T2DM 120 bpm/min), peak a-vO 2 (Controls 13.1 vs without T2DM 10.6 vs with T2DM 8.9 mL/100 mL), and VE vs VCO 2 slope (Controls 33.2 vs without T2DM 35.0 vs with T2DM 38.2) were significantly worsened in patients with HFpEF with T2DM (median, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in peak SI among the three groups.
Conclusions: Our results suggested that comorbid T2DM in patients with HFpEF may reduce exercise capacity, HR response, peripheral oxygen extraction, and ventilation efficiency. These results may help identify cardiovascular phenotypes of HFpEF complicated with T2DM and intervention targets for improving exercise intolerance.