Cardiac function in adolescents with obesity: cardiometabolic risk factors and impact on physical fitness.

Franssen WMA; Beyens M; Hatawe TA; Frederix I; Verboven K; Dendale P; Eijnde BO; Massa G; Hansen D;

International Journal Of Obesity (2005) [Int J Obes (Lond)] 2018 Dec 19. Date of Electronic Publication: 2018 Dec 19.

Objective: To gain greater insights in the etiology and clinical consequences of altered cardiac function in obese adolescents. Therefore, we aimed to examine cardiac structure and function in obese adolescents, and to examine associations between altered cardiac function/structure and cardiometabolic disease risk factors or cardiopulmonary exercise capacity.
Methods: In 29 obese (BMI 31.6 ± 4.2 kg/m², age 13.4 ± 1.1 years) and 29 lean (BMI 19.5 ± 2.4 kg/m², age 14.0 ± 1.5 years) adolescents, fasted blood samples were collected to study hematology, biochemistry, liver function, glycemic control, lipid profile, and hormones, followed by a transthoracic echocardiography to assess cardiac structure/function, and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) to assess cardiopulmonary exercise parameters. Regression analyses were applied to examine relations between altered echocardiographic parameters and blood parameters or CPET parameters in the entire group.
Results: In obese adolescents, left ventricular septum thickness, left atrial diameter, mitral A-wave velocity, E/e’ ratio were significantly elevated (p < 0.05), as opposed to lean controls, while mitral e’-wave velocity was significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Elevated homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and blood insulin, c-reactive protein, and uric acid concentrations (all significantly elevated in obese adolescents) were independent risk factors for an altered cardiac diastolic function (p < 0.01). An altered cardiac diastolic function was not related to exercise tolerance but to a delayed heart rate recovery (HRR; p < 0.01).
Conclusions: In obese adolescents, an altered cardiac diastolic function was independently related to hyperinsulinemia and whole-body insulin resistance, and only revealed by a delayed HRR during CPET. This indicates that both hyperinsulinemia, whole-body insulin resistance, and delayed HRR could be regarded as clinically relevant outcome parameters.