Cardiac Function is Preserved in Adolescents With Well-Controlled Type 1 Diabetes and a Normal Physical Fitness: A Cross-sectional Study.

Van Ryckeghem L;Franssen WMA; Verbaanderd E; Indesteege J; De Vriendt F; Verwerft J;Dendale P; Bito V;
Hansen D;

Canadian journal of diabetes [Can J Diabetes] 2021 Jan 23. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Jan 23.

Objectives: Cardiovascular diseases and exercise intolerance elevate mortality in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function are already affected in T1DM adolescents, displaying poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin [A1C]>7.5%) and exercise intolerance. We investigated to the extent to which left ventricular function is affected by disease severity/duration and whether this is related to exercise capacity.
Methods: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 19 T1DM adolescents (14.8±1.9 years old, A1C 7.4±0.9%) and 19 controls (14.4±1.3 years old, A1C 5.3±0.2%), matched for age and Tanner stage. Diastolic and systolic (ejection fraction [EF]) function were assessed. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was used to evaluate exercise capacity, as measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ).
Results: VO 2peak and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function were similar in both groups. Within the T1D group, EF was negatively associated with disease duration (r=-0.79 corrected for age, standardized body mass index, glucose variability and VO 2peak ; p=0.011). Regression analyses revealed that 37.6% of the variance in EF could be attributed to disease duration.
Conclusions: Although left ventricular systolic and diastolic function are preserved in T1D with adequate exercise capacity, disease duration negatively affects EF. The detrimental effects of T1D seem to be driven by disease duration, rather than by disease severity, at least during adolescence. Young T1D patients may, therefore, benefit from cardiovascular evaluation in order to detect cardiovascular abnormalities early in the disease course, and therefore, improve long-term cardiovascular health.