Cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular disease – The past, present, and future. [Review]

Kaminsky LA; Arena R; Ellingsen O; Harber MP; Myers J; Ozemek C; Ross R

Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 62(2):86-93, 2019 Mar – Apr.

The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is now well established
and it is increasingly being recognized as an essential variable which
should be assessed in health screenings. The key findings that have
established the clinical significance of CRF are reviewed in this report,
along with an overview of the current relevance of exercise as a form of
medicine that can provide a number of positive health outcomes, including
increasing CRF. Current assessment options for assessing CRF are also
reviewed, including the direct measurement via cardiopulmonary exercise
testing which now can be interpreted with age and sex-specific reference
values. Future directions for the use of CRF and related measures are