Classification and Predictors of Right Ventricular Functional Recovery in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Rischard FP; Bernardo RJ; Vanderpool RR; Kwon DH; Acharya T; Park MM; Katrynuik A; Insel M; Kubba S; Badagliacca R; Larive AB; Naeije R;Garcia JGN; Beck GJ; Erzurum SC; Hassoun PM; Hemnes AR; Hill NS; Horn EM; Leopold JA; Rosenzweig EB; Tang WHW; Wilcox JD;

Circulation. Heart failure [Circ Heart Fail] 2023 Sep 04, pp. e010555.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Sep 04.

Background: Normative changes in right ventricular (RV) structure and function have not been characterized in the context of treatment-associated functional recovery (RV functional recovery [RVFnRec]). The aim of this study is to assess the clinical relevance of a proposed RVFnRec definition.
Methods: We evaluated 63 incident patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at diagnosis and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing following treatment (≈11 months). Sex, age, ethnicity matched healthy control subjects (n=62) with 1-time cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing were recruited from the PVDOMICS (Redefining Pulmonary Hypertension through Pulmonary Vascular Disease Phenomics) project. We examined therapeutic cardiac magnetic resonance imaging changes relative to the evidence-based peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak )>15 mL/(kg·min) to define RVFnRec by receiver operating curve analysis. Afterload was measured as mean pulmonary artery pressure, resistance, compliance, and elastance.
Results: A drop in RV end-diastolic volume of -15 mL best defined RVFnRec (area under the curve, 0.87; P =0.0001) and neared upper 95% CI RV end-diastolic volume of controls. This cutoff was met by 22 out of 63 (35%) patients which was reinforced by freedom from clinical worsening, RVFnRec 1 out of 21 (5%) versus no RVFnRec 17 out of 42, 40% (log-rank P =0.006). A therapy-associated increase of 0.8 mL/mm Hg in compliance had the best predictive value of RVFnRec (area under the curve, 0.76; [95% CI, 0.64-0.88]; P =0.001). RVFnRec patients had greater increases in stroke volume, and cardiac output at exercise.
Conclusions: RVFnRec defined by RV end-diastolic volume therapeutic decrease of -15 mL predicts exercise capacity, freedom from clinical worsening, and nears normalization. A therapeutic improvement of compliance is superior to other measures of afterload in predicting RVFnRec. RVFnRec is also associated with increased RV output reserve at exercise.