Combined aerobic/resistance/inspiratory muscle training as the ‘optimum’ exercise programme for patients with chronic heart failure: ARISTOS-HF randomized clinical trial.

Laoutaris ID; Piotrowicz E; Kallistratos MS; Dritsas A; Dimaki N; Miliopoulos D; Andriopoulou M; Manolis AJ; Volterrani M; Piepoli MF; Coats AJS; Adamopoulos S;

European journal of preventive cardiology [Eur J Prev Cardiol] 2020 Dec 02. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Dec 02.

Aims: An ‘optimum’ universally agreed exercise programme for heart failure (HF) patients has not been found. ARISTOS-HF randomized clinical trial evaluates whether combined aerobic training (AT)/resistance training (RT)/inspiratory muscle training (IMT) (ARIS) is superior to AT/RT, AT/IMT or AT in improving aerobic capacity, left ventricular dimensions, and secondary functional outcomes.
Methods and Results: Eighty-eight patients of New York Heart Association II-III, left ventricular ejection fraction  ≤ 35% were randomized to an ARIS, AT/RT, AT/IMT, or AT group, exercising 3 times/week, 180 min/week for 12 weeks. Pre- and post-training, peakVO2 was evaluated with cardiopulmonary exercise testing, left ventricular dimensions using echocardiography, walking distance with the 6-min walk test (6MWT), quality of life by the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire (MLwHFQ), while a programme preference survey (PPS) was used. Seventy-four patients of [mean 95% (confidence interval, CI)] age 66.1 (64.3-67.9) years and peakVO2 17.3 (16.4-18.2) mL/kg/min were finally analysed. Between-group analysis showed a trend for increased peakVO2 (mL/kg/min) [mean contrasts (95% CI)] in the ARIS group [ARIS vs. AT/RT 1.71 (0.163-3.25)(.), vs. AT/IMT 1.50 (0.0152-2.99)(.), vs. AT 1.38 (-0.142 to 2.9)(.)], additional benefits in circulatory power (mL/kg/min⋅mmHg) [ARIS vs. AT/RT 376 (60.7-690)*, vs. AT/IMT 423 (121-725)*, vs. AT 345 (35.4-656)*], left ventricular end-systolic diameter (mm) [ARIS vs. AT/RT -2.11 (-3.65 to (-0.561))*, vs. AT -2.47 (-4.01 to (-0.929))**], 6MWT (m) [ARIS vs. AT/IMT 45.6 (18.3-72.9)**, vs. AT 55.2 (27.6-82.7)****], MLwHFQ [ARIS vs. AT/RT -7.79 (-11 to (-4.62))****, vs. AT -8.96 (-12.1 to (-5.84))****], and in PPS score [mean (95% CI)] [ARIS, 4.8 (4.7-5) vs. AT, 4.4 (4.2-4.7)*] [(.) P ≤ 0.1; *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01; ***P ≤ 0.001; ****P ≤ 0.0001].
Conclusion: ARISTOS-HF trial recommends exercise training for 180 min/week and supports the prescription of the ARIS training regime for HF patients (Clinical Trial Registration: ARISTOS-HF Clinical Trial number, NCT03013270).