Incorporation of noninvasive assessments in risk prediction for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Quan R; Chen X; Yang T; Li W; Qian Y; Lin Y; Xiong C; Shan G; Gu Q; He J;

Pulmonary circulation [Pulm Circ] 2022 Oct 01; Vol. 12 (4), pp. e12158.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Oct 01 (Print Publication: 2022).

Risk assessment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) utilizing noninvasive prognostic variables could be more practical in real-world scenarios, especially at follow-up reevaluations. Patients who underwent comprehensive evaluations both at baseline and at follow-up visits were enrolled. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Predictive variables identified by Cox analyses were further incorporated with the French noninvasive risk prediction approach. A total of 580 PAH patients were enrolled. During a median follow-up time of 47.0 months, 112 patients (19.3%) died. By multivariate Cox analyses, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), TAPSE/pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP), and cardiopulmonary exercise testing-derived peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) remained independent predictors for survival. Regarding the French noninvasive risk prediction method, substituting N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with the newly derived low-risk criteria of a TAPSE ≥ 17 mm or a TAPSE/PASP > 0.17 mm/mmHg, or alternating 6-min walking distance with a peak VO 2  ≥ 44 %predicted retained the discrimination power. When recombining the low-risk criteria, the combination of World Health Organization functional class (WHO FC), TAPSE and peak VO 2 at baseline, and the combination of WHO FC, NT-proBNP, and peak VO 2 at follow-up showed better discriminative ability than the other combinations. In conclusion, Peak VO 2 , TAPSE, and TAPSE/PASP are significant prognostic predictors for survival in PAH, with incremental prognostic value when incorporated with the French noninvasive risk prediction approach, especially at reevaluations. For better risk prediction, WHO FC, at least one measurement of exercise capacity and one measurement of right ventricular function should be considered.