Influence of circadian blood pressure patterns and cardiopulmonary functional capacity in hypertensive patients.

Tadic M; Cuspidi C; Suzic-Lazic J; Andric A; Sala C; Santoro C; Iracek O; Celic V;

Journal Of Clinical Hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) [J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)] 2019 Aug 26. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Aug 26.

We sought to assess functional capacity in recently diagnosed untreated hypertensive patients with different 24-hour blood pressure (BP) patterns (dipping, non-dipping, extreme dipping, and reverse dipping). This cross-sectional study involved 164 untreated hypertensive patients who underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Our findings showed that 24-hour and daytime BP values did not differ between four groups. Nighttime BP significantly and gradually increased from extreme dippers to reverse dippers. There was no significant difference in BPs at baseline and at the peak of exercise among four observed groups. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) was significantly lower in reverse dippers than in dippers and extreme dippers. Heart rate recovery was significantly lower among reverse dippers than in dippers and extreme dippers. Ventilation/carbon dioxide slope (VE/VCO2) was significantly higher in reverse dippers and non-dippers in comparison with dippers and extreme dippers. Non-dipping BP pattern (non-dippers and reverse dippers together) was independently and negatively associated lower heart rate recovery in the first minute and peak VO2. Reverse dipping BP pattern was independently associated not only with heart rate recovery in the first minute and peak VO2, but also with VE/VCO2. In conclusion, untreated hypertensive patients with reverse dipping BP patterns showed significantly worse functional capacity than those with dipping and extreme dipping BP patterns. Circadian BP rhythm is related with functional capacity and should be taken into account in the risk assessment of hypertensive patients.