Minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production in congenital heart disease.

Hager A;

European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society [Eur Respir Rev] 2021 Sep 15; Vol. 30 (161). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Sep 15 (Print Publication: 2021).

This review summarises various applications of how ventilatory equivalent (ventilatory efficiency or better still ventilatory inefficiency) and the minute ventilation ( VE )/carbon dioxide production ( VCO 2 ) slope obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can be used in the diagnostic or prognostic workup of patients with congenital heart disease.The field of congenital heart disease comprises not only a very heterogeneous patient group with various heart diseases, but also various conditions in different stages of repair, as well as the different residuals seen in long-term follow-up. As such, various physiologic disarrangements must be considered in the analysis of increased VE / VCO 2 slope from CPET in patients with congenital heart disease. In addition to congestive heart failure (CHF), cyanosis, unilateral pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary hypertension (PH) provide the background for this finding. The predictive value of increased VE / VCO 2 slope on prognosis seems to be more important in conditions where circulatory failure is associated with failure of the systemic ventricle. In cyanotic patients, those with Fontan circulation, or those with substantial mortality from arrhythmia, the impact of VE / VCO 2 on prognosis is not that important.