More Impaired Dynamic Ventilatory Muscle Oxygenation in Congestive Heart Failure than in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Chuang ML; Lin IF; Hsieh MJ;

Journal Of Clinical Medicine [J Clin Med] 2019 Oct 07; Vol. 8 (10). Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Oct 07.

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) often have dyspnea. Despite differences in primary organ derangement and similarities in secondary skeletal muscle changes, both patient groups have prominent functional impairment. With similar daily exercise performance in patients with CHF and COPD, we hypothesized that patients with CHF would have worse ventilatory muscle oxygenation than patients with COPD. This study aimed to compare differences in tissue oxygenation and blood capacity between ventilatory muscles and leg muscles and between the two patient groups. Demographic data, lung function, and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed in 134 subjects without acute illnesses. Muscle oxygenation and blood capacity were measured using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fd-NIRS). We enrolled normal subjects and patients with COPD and CHF. The two patient groups were matched by oxygen-cost diagram scores, New York Heart Association functional classification scores, and modified Medical Research Council scores. COPD was defined as forced expired volume in one second and forced expired vital capacity ratio ≤0.7. CHF was defined as stable heart failure with an ejection fraction ≤49%. The healthy subjects were defined as those with no obvious history of chronic disease. Age, body mass index, cigarette consumption, lung function, and exercise capacity were different across the three groups. Muscle oxygenation and blood capacity were adjusted accordingly. Leg muscles had higher deoxygenation (HHb) and oxygenation (HbO2) and lower oxygen saturation (SmO2) than ventilatory muscles in all participants. The SmO2 of leg muscles was lower than that of ventilatory muscles because SmO2 was calculated as HbO2/(HHb+HbO2), and the HHb of leg muscles was relatively higher than the HbO2 of leg muscles. The healthy subjects had higher SmO2, the patients with COPD had higher HHb, and the patients with CHF had lower HbO2 in both muscle groups throughout the tests. The patients with CHF had lower SmO2 of ventilatory muscles than the patients with COPD at peak exercise (p < 0.01). We conclud that fd-NIRS can be used to discriminate tissue oxygenation of different musculatures and disease entities. More studies on interventions on ventilatory muscle oxygenation in patients with CHF and COPD are warranted