Perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET): consensus clinical guidelines on indications, organization, conduct, and physiological interpretation

D.Z.H. Levett, S. Jack, M. Swart, J. Carlisle, J. Wilson, C. Snowden, M. Riley, G. Danjoux, S.A. Ward, P. Older, M.P.W. Grocott  For the Perioperative Exercise Testing and Training Society (POETTS)
BJA Volume 120, Issue 3, Pages 484–500

The use of perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate the risk of adverse perioperative events and inform the perioperative management of patients undergoing surgery has increased over the last decade. CPET provides an objective assessment of exercise capacity preoperatively and identifies the causes of exercise limitation. This information may be used to assist clinicians and patients in decisions about the most appropriate surgical and non-surgical management during the perioperative period. Information gained from CPET can be used to estimate the likelihood of perioperative morbidity and mortality, to inform the processes of multidisciplinary collaborative decision making and consent, to triage patients for perioperative care (ward vs critical care), to direct preoperative interventions and optimization, to identify new comorbidities, to evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant cancer therapies, to guide prehabilitation and rehabilitation, and to guide intraoperative anaesthetic practice. With the rapid uptake of CPET, standardization is key to ensure valid, reproducible results that can inform clinical decision making. Recently, an international Perioperative Exercise Testing and Training Society has been established (POETTS promoting the highest standards of care for patients undergoing exercise testing, training, or both in the perioperative setting. These clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing guidelines have been developed by consensus by the Perioperative Exercise Testing and Training Society after systematic literature review. The guidelines have been endorsed by the Association of Respiratory Technology and Physiology (ARTP).