Preoperative Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test Associated with Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Cancer Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

Steffens D; Ismail H; Denehy L; Beckenkamp PR; Solomon M; Koh C; Bartyn J;

Annals of surgical oncology [Ann Surg Oncol] 2021 Jun 08. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Jun 08.

Backgrounds: There is mixed evidence on the value of preoperative cardiorespiratory exercise test (CPET) to predict postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing a cancer surgical procedure. The purpose of this review was to investigate the association between preoperative CPET variables and postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and quality of life in patients undergoing cancer surgery.
Methods: A search was conducted on MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, and Web of science from inception to April 2020. Cohort studies investigating the association between preoperative CPET variables, including peak oxygen uptake (peak VO 2 ), anaerobic threshold (AT), or ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (V E /V CO2 ), and postoperative outcomes (complications, length of stay, and quality of life) were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the QUIPS tool. A random-effect model meta-analysis was performed whenever possible.
Results: Fifty-two unique studies, including 10,030 patients were included. Overall, most studies were rated as having low risk of bias. Higher preoperative peak VO 2 was associated with absence of postoperative complications (mean difference [MD]: 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-3.29) and no pulmonary complication (MD: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.49-2.45). Preoperative AT and V E /V CO2 also demonstrated some positive trends. None of the included studies reported a negative trend.
Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated a significant association between superior preoperative CPET values, especially peak VO 2 , and better postoperative outcomes. The assessment of preoperative functional capacity in patients undergoing cancer surgery has the potential to facilitate treatment decision making.