Pulmonale Hypertonie bei Lungen- und Linksherzerkrankungen

Held, M.; Rosenkranz, S.

Der Pneumologe, September 2015, Vol. 12 Issue:
Number 5 p410-416, 7p;

Increasing awareness of pulmonary hypertension (PH) leads to
an increased detection rate even in elderly patients with a higher rate
of comorbidities. In patients with PH and left-sided heart or pulmonary
diseases it is necessary to assess if these cardiac or pulmonary
conditions are the cause of PH or only independent comorbidities.
Additionally, it has to be evaluated if a chronic left-sided
ventricular disease with pulmonary congestion has induced a pulmonary
vasculopathy with severe PH. Sleep apnea syndrome can underlie PH and
severe PH can lead to central sleep apnea. These aspects require
experience and a careful and extensive diagnostic evaluation, including
complete hemodynamic assessment, imaging techniques, lung function and
cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Experienced PH centers should be
involved in this diagnostic process at an early stage. Although PH
leads to a worsening of the prognosis of pulmonary fibrosis and chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as of diastolic and
systolic heart failure, published data do not support targeted PH
therapies under these conditions due to a lack of evidence. Therefore,
the treatment of the underlying disease is the primary goal. Mitral
valve repair and non-invasive pressure ventilation in patients with
alveolar hypoventilation lead to hemodynamic and functional
improvement. Patients with PH and left heart disease show improvement
following normalization of volume load. So far there are no approved
medical therapies for PH due to left-sided heart disease and PH due to
lung diseases. Patients with PH and left-sided heart diseases and lung
diseases should be introduced in specific clinical studies.;