Sato Y; Yoshihisa A; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kimishima Y; Kiko T; Watanabe S; Fukushima; Kanno Y;
The Canadian Journal Of Cardiology [Can J Cardiol] 2018 Jan; Vol. 34 (1), pp. 80-87. Date of Electronic Publication: 2017 Nov 08.
Background: It is widely recognized that overt hyper- as well as hypothyroidism are potential causes of heart failure (HF). Additionally it has been recently reported that subclinical hypothyroidism (sub-hypo) is associated with atherosclerosis, development of HF, and cardiovascular death. We aimed to clarify the effect of sub-hypo on prognosis of HF, and underlying hemodynamics and exercise capacity.
Methods: We measured the serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in 1100 consecutive HF patients. We divided these patients into 5 groups on the basis of plasma levels of TSH and FT4, and focused on euthyroidism (0.4 ≤ TSH ≤ 4 μIU/mL and 0.7 ≤ FT4 ≤ 1.9 ng/dL; n = 911; 82.8%) and sub-hypo groups (TSH > 4 μIU/mL and 0.7 ≤ FT4 ≤ 1.9 ng/dL; n = 132; 12.0%). We compared parameters of echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and cardiac catheterization, and followed up for cardiac event rate and all-cause mortality between the 2 groups.
Results: Although left ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between the 2 groups, the sub-hypo group had lower peak breath-by-breath oxygen consumption and higher mean pulmonary arterial pressure than the euthyroidism group (peak breath-by-breath oxygen consumption, 14.0 vs 15.9 mL/min/kg; P = 0.012; mean pulmonary arterial pressure, 26.8 vs 23.5 mm Hg, P = 0.020). In Kaplan-Meier analysis (mean 1098 days), the cardiac event rate and all-cause mortality were significantly higher in the sub-hypo group than those in the euthyroidism group (log rank, P < 0.01, respectively). In Cox proportional hazard analysis, sub-hypo was a predictor of cardiac event rate and all-cause mortality in HF patients (P < 0.05, respectively).
Conclusions: Sub-hypo might be associated with adverse prognosis, accompanied by impaired exercise capacity and higher pulmonary arterial pressure, in HF patients.