The Effect of Growth and Body Surface Area on Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing: A Cohort Study in Preadolescent Female Swimmers.

Stavrou VT;  Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41100 Larissa, Greece.
Karetsi E; Gourgoulianis KI;

Children (Basel, Switzerland) [Children (Basel)] 2023 Sep 27; Vol. 10 (10).
Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Sep 27.

Background: The performance of young swimmers is the result of a multifactorial process that is influenced by anthropometric characteristics and biological maturation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of stages of biological maturation and body surface area on cardiopulmonary fitness indicators in preadolescent female swimmers, for whom menstruation has not started.
Methods: Thirty female preadolescent swimmers (age 13.4 ± 1.0 years) participated in this study. We recorded anthropometric and morphological characteristics, stages of biological maturation, and pulmonary function parameters, and the swimmers underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing.
Results: The cut-off was set for body surface area (BSA) at 1.6 m 2 and for biological maturation stages at score 3. The BSA results showed differences in variabilities in maximal effort oxygen pulse ( p < 0.001), oxygen uptake ( p < 0.001), ventilation ( p = 0.041), tidal volume ( p < 0.001), and oxygen breath ( p < 0.001). Tanner stage score results showed differences in variabilities in maximal effort breath frequency ( p < 0.001), tidal volume ( p = 0.013), and oxygen breath ( p = 0.045). Biological maturation stages and BSA were correlated during maximal effort with oxygen breath ( p < 0.001; p < 0.001), oxygen uptake ( p = 0.002; p < 0.001), and oxygen pulse ( p < 0.001; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings of our study showed that the girls who had a smaller body surface area and biological maturation stage presented lower values in maximal oxygen uptake and greater respiratory work.