American College of Cardiology. April 13:2021
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been a valuable tool in medicine and sports performance for decades. However, the intercept of the fields, particularly in consideration of the utility of CPET, is relatively new with the growth of sports cardiology. CPET in medicine is generally indicated in the evaluation of unexplained dyspnea and/or for stratification of patients for heart or lung transplants. In sports performance, CPET has been used to provide details and parameters for the athlete to improve training and human performance. With the promotion of CPET in sports cardiology, it is now not uncommon to see an athlete performing exercise testing in the same lab as those patients undergoing heart transplant evaluations. With some athletes capable of achieving maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in excess of 60 ml/kg/min or greater than 140% of predicted, clinicians need to be aware of some fundamental differences in athletes that reflect normal physiology rather than a pathological response as would be encountered in patients with heart and lung disease.