The role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in predicting mortality and morbidity in people with congenital heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Wadey CA; Weston ME; Dorobantu DM; Pieles GE; Stuart G;Barker AR; Taylor RS; Williams CA;

European journal of preventive cardiology [Eur J Prev Cardiol] 2021 Aug 18.
Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Aug 18.

Aims: The role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in people with congenital heart disease (ConHD) is unknown. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to report the associations between CPET parameters and MACE in people with ConHD.
Methods and Results: Electronic databases were systematically searched on 30 April 2020 for eligible publications. Two authors independently screened publications for inclusion, extracted study data, and performed risk of bias assessment. Primary meta-analysis pooled univariate hazard ratios across studies. A total of 34 studies (18 335 participants; 26.2 ± 10.1 years; 54% ± 16% male) were pooled into a meta-analysis. More than 20 different CPET prognostic factors were reported across 6 ConHD types. Of the 34 studies included in the meta-analysis, 10 (29%), 23 (68%), and 1 (3%) were judged as a low, medium, and high risk of bias, respectively. Primary univariate meta-analysis showed consistent evidence that improved peak and submaximal CPET measures are associated with a reduce risk of MACE. This association was supported by a secondary meta-analysis of multivariate estimates and individual studies that could not be numerically pooled.
Conclusion: Various maximal and submaximal CPET measures are prognostic of MACE across a variety of ConHD diagnoses. Further well-conducted prospective multicentre cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.